To evaluate the effect of different biomass management strategies (incorporating, harvesting, and herbicide suppression) of three cover crop (CC) species, including rye (Secale cereale L.), rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.), and a control without CC as well as different nitrogen (N) levels on yield of the following potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), N uptake (Nup), N use efficiency (NUE), and the agronomic efficiency of N (AEN), a 2-year field experiment was conducted at the University of Tehran. Rye and rapeseed produced the greatest aboveground biomass and accumulated more N than hairy vetch. Different biomass management strategies of CCs had no significant effect on tuber yield, but after rapeseed and rye, the highest potato yield was observed compared with hairy vetch or fallow. Tuber yield was higher in fertilized potatoes with 100 kg N ha−1 among rapeseed compared with control (35.5 and 31 t ha−1, respectively) and in rye compared with control with 200 kg N ha−1 (42.24 and 37.81 t ha−1, respectively). The highest tuber yield was obtained in potato planted after incorporating CCs and at the maximum N level (41.99 t ha−1). Nup and NUE were higher after rye and rapeseed compared with hairy vetch and fallow. Also, potato Nup was always higher after rapeseed and rye in the 100 and 200 kg N ha−1 treatments.